The Process of Information Retrieval


A friend of mine published this realy great post about Information Retrieval. I have reblogged it here.


Information Retrieval (IR) is the activity of obtaining information from large collections of Information sources in response to a need.

The working of Information Retrieval process is explained below

  • The Process of Information Retrieval starts when a user creates any query into the system through some graphical interface provided.
  • These user-defined queries are the statements of needed information. for example, queries fork by users in search engines.
  • In IR single query does not match to the right data object instead it matches with the several collections of data objects from which the most relevant document is taken into consideration for further evaluation.
  • The ranking of relevant documents is done to find out the most related document to the given query.
  • This is the key difference between the Database searching and Information Retrieval.
  • After the query is sent to the core of the system. This part has the access to the content management…

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A Cognitive study of Lexicons in Natural Language Processing.


What are Lexicons ?

A word in any language is made of a root or stem word and an affix. These affixes are usually governed by some rules called orthographic rules. These orthographic rules define the spelling rules for a word composition in Morphological Parsing phase. A lexicon is a list of such stem words and affixes and is a vital requirement to construct a Morphological Parser. Morphological parsing involves building up or breaking down a structured representation of component morphemes to form a meaningful word or a stem word. It is a necessary phase in spell checking, search term disambiguation in Web Search engines, part of speech tagging, machine translation.

A simple lexicon would usually just consist of a list of every possible word and stem + affix combination in the language. But this is an inconvenient approach in real-time applications as search and retrieval of a specific word would become a challenge owing to the unstructured format of the lexicon. If a proper structure is provided to the lexicon consisting of the stem and affixes then building a word from this lexicon becomes bit simple. So, what kind of structure are we talking about here ? The most common structure used in morphotactics modeling is the Finite-State Automaton.

Let us look at a simple finite-state model for English nominal inflection:


Finite State Model for English nominal inflection

As stated in this FSM the regular noun is our stem word and is concatenated with plural suffix –s, 

eg. regular_noun(bat) + plural_suffix(s) = bats

Now this FSM will fail at some exceptions like : foot => feet, mouse => mice, company => companies, etc. This is where orthographic rules come in action. It defines these specific spelling rules for particular a stem which is supposed to be the exception. According to this, the FSM can be improved.

Cognitive Computing :

” It addresses complex situations that are characterized by ambiguity and uncertainty; in other words it handles human kinds of problems.”

Cognitive Computing Consortium

“Cognitive computing refers to systems that learn at scale, reason with purpose and interact with humans naturally. Rather than being explicitly programmed, they learn and reason from their interactions with us and from their experiences with their environment.”

– Dr. John E. Kelly III; Computing, cognition and the future of knowing, IBM.

Or simple we can say:

“Cognitive computing is the simulation of human thought processes in a computerized model. Cognitive computing involves self-learning systems that use data mining, pattern recognition and natural language processing to mimic the way the human brain works. The goal of cognitive computing is to create automated IT systems that are capable of solving problems without requiring human assistance.”


If cognitive computing is the simulation of human thought process in a computerized model, then this solves most of our ambiguity issues faced in Natural Language Processing. Let us first try to reason how a human mind tries to resolve ambiguity in Morphological Parsing.

How does our human mind constructs its Mental Lexicons ?

Let us say I give you a word – ‘cat’. The human brain immediately recognizes that given word is a noun relating to a cute little animal with fur. It also is able to recall its pronunciation. But sometimes it is unable to recognize the given word and recall all the information relating to it, say for example if you see the word ‘wug’, your mind might be able to figure out its pronunciation but it would fail to label a part of speech to it or assign a meaning to it. But if I tell you that it is a Noun and is a small creature, you can use it in a sentence and you would know its Part of Speech, eg. “I saw a wug today.”

Similarly, a word like ‘cluvious’ even if you don’t know its meaning, you may be able to infer some information about it because most words in English that have this form are Adjectives (ambitious, curious, anxious, envious…). Which might help you predict their meaning when the occur in sentences, example “You look cluvious today”. From the example sentence, one can easily interpret that ‘cluvious’ informs about the physical appearance of an entity.

You can even reason about words that you haven’t seen before, like ‘traftful’ and ‘traftless’ and figure out that they are most likely opposites. This is because the given pair of words resembles with many pairs of words in English that have this particular structure and an antonym relationship.

With the observations stated as above one can build a Morphological Parser with higher efficiency. You can also read my other post on how to set up Natural Language Processing environment in Python.

Further Reading:

Naive Bayes Classifier in Python


Naive Bayes Classifier is probably the most widely used text classifier, it’s a supervised learning algorithm. It can be used to classify blog posts or news articles into different categories like sports, entertainment and so forth. It can be used to detect spam emails. But most important is that it’s widely implemented in Sentiment analysis. So first of all what is supervised learning? It means that the labeled training dataset is provided along with the input and the respective output. From this training dataset, our algorithm infers the next outcome to a given input.

The basics,

Conditional Probability : It is simply the probability that something will happen, given that something else has happened. It’s a way to handle dependent events. You can check out some examples of conditional probability here.

So from the multiplication rule; (here A and B are dependent events)

P(A ∪ B) = P(A) · P(B|A)

Now from above equation we get the formula for conditional probability;

P(B|A) = P(A ∪ B) / P(A)

Bayes’ theorem : It describes the probability of an event based on the conditions or attributes that might be related to the event,

P(A|B) = [P(B|A) · P(A)] / P(B)

So, our classifier can be written as :

Assume a problem instance to be classified, represented by vector x = (x1, x2, x3, …. , xn) representing some n attributes. Here y is our class variable.


Here we have eliminated the denominator P(x1, x2, x3, …. , xn) because it doesn’t really contribute to our final solution.

Now to make sure our algorithm holds up good against our datasets, we need to take the following conditions into account.

The Zero Frequency problem : Let us consider the case where a given attribute or class never occurs together in the training data, causing the frequency-based probability estimate be zero. This small  condition will wipe out the entire information in other probabilities when multiplied (multiplied by zero…duh…!). The simple solution to it is to apply Laplace estimation by assuming a uniform distribution over all attributes ie. we simply add a pseudocount in all probability estimates such that no probability is ever set to zero.

Floating Point Underflow : The probability values can go out of the floating point range hence to avoid this we need take logarithms on the probabilities. Accordingly we need to apply logarithmic rules to our classifier.

I have implemented Naive Bayes Classifier in Python and you can find it on Github. If have any improvements to add or any suggestions let me know in the comments section below.


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